esunthido – Gesta Hungarorum Romana Pdf Download – Twitch. An Analysis of the Treatment of the Gesta Hungarorum as an Historical .. Historia Romana (translated into Greek by Ioannes Xiphilinos between and Media in category “Gesta Hungarorum”. The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. × ; KB.

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Interestingly enough, Anonymus did not mention any of the known enemies of the invading Magyars, such as Simeon I of Bulgaria or Svatopluk the Great of Moravia, who were mentioned in various contemporary chronicles and annals.

This article will take a closer look at the latter and strive to sort fact from fiction in an attempt to demystify one of the most interesting episodes in the history of Transylvania, a history which is shared by Hungarians and Romanians alike.

Hyngarorum also mentioned Cumans in addition to Pechenegs Cumanis et Picenatiseven though the Cumans were not present in the region at the time.

Salt was a precious commodity and a highly prized trade item in those times, and the mines controlled by Gelou produced top-quality rock salt, making his duchy a prime target for recurring raids. Unfortunately, we do not know anything else about Gelou or his realm. Moreover, Menumorut had generals and lieutenants tasked with commanding his troops domana the battlefield hungadorum in each of his fortresses. Anonymus failed to mention anything relating to these important aspects as well, but since Gelou is explicitly referred to as being Romanian then Proto-Romanian was certainly one of the languages spoken in his duchy.

Furthermore, since Romanians and Slavs lived together in the duchy, there is a high probability of [Romanian-Slavonic] bilingualism, at least to some extent, as one group had to communicate with the other. Humgarorum it comes to religion, there are only a few hints in the Gesta Hungarorum which might suggest that at least some of the groups inhabiting the three Transylvanian polities were Orthodox Christians.

Gyula (title) – Wikipedia

This could only mean that he was an Orthodox Christian, since any diplomatic relations between Menumorut and the Eastern Roman Emperor were impossible at the turn of the 9 th century. If these two Transylvanian dukes were Orthodox Christians — even nominally — then there is a high chance that at least some of their subjects and followers shared their faith. Their primary weapon was the rudimentary bow and arrow according to Anonymus, but archaeological findings have revealed that lances, hatchets and long knives similar to the seax were also part of their arsenal.


It remains largely unknown what type of equipment was used for protection i. Perhaps only Gelou himself and the few noblemen who rode at his side in battle were able to afford better gear for example, chainmail armor. After all, this was not a professional army made up of trained soldiers, but a force comprised of regular people who had to provide their own military equipment. It should come as no surprise, then, that Gelou could not defeat the Pechenegs and put an end to their devastating raids.

His ragtag army of Romanian and Slavonic peasants was no match for the ferocious Turkic horsemen and suffered heavy casualties whenever it confronted them.

Demystifying Gelou

The Hunharorum, too, were ferocious horsemen and expert mounted archers, just like the Pechenegs, vastly superior to any of the groups inhabiting Transylvania from a military point of view.

According to Hunggarorum, the Magyars crossed the northern Carpathians, bypassing Transylvania. Therefore, before they clashed with Menumorut, Glad and Gelou, the Magyars clashed with a certain Duke Salanus who ruled the territory between the Danube and the Tisza rivers. When he arrived, he spoke much to his lord of the goodness of that land: Their duke, Gelou, was not steadfast and did not have around him good warriors who dared stand against the daring of hungarorkm Hungarians, because they had suffered many injuries from the Cumans and Pechenegs [Cumanis et Picenatis].

Gelou received news of the impending Magyar invasion, but he was caught by surprise and could not rally his forces fast enough to intercept Tuhutum.

Gelou suffered a catastrophic defeat. His poorly-equipped Romanian and Slavonic foot soldiers stood no chance against the calculated savagery of the Magyar horse archers.

File:HU Budapest Anonymous statue.jpg

This could mean that Tuhutum and his band of warriors rebelled against their grand chieftain and left his tribal confederacy. The Gesta Hungarorum contains a hint as to when this might have happened: Like most nomadic tribes from the Eurasian steppe, the Magyar tribes formed a loose confederation which was headed not by one, but by two high chieftains: Perhaps the Tuhutum from the Gesta Hungarorum was, in reality, the gyula of the Magyar tribes or a pretender of that title.

As we have already stated at the beginning of this article, the Gesta Hungarorum does not mention any of the known enemies of the invading Magyars. Because of this, there is still a fierce debate among scholars and historians regarding the authenticity of the events and the historicity of the figures described in the Gesta Hungarorumas well as the overall reliability of the chronicle.


This controversial theory claimed that the Romanians from Transylvania were the descendants of the Roman settlers who colonized Dacia in ancient times, making them the oldest inhabitants of the province. Therefore, the Romanians were to be recognized as such and be granted equal rights with the privileged nations that only arrived in Transylvania much later. In the end, however, the members of the Transylvanian School failed to achieve their goal, as none of their demands were met.

Their struggle for equal rights only prompted Austrian and Hungarian historians to retaliate by developing an anti-continuity theory claiming that Romanians lived south of the Danube and migrated to Transylvania only after the 12 th century.

Gesta Hungarorum – Wikipedia

Since then, the debate became heavily politicized. Even today, Hungarian historians tend to dismiss gseta Gesta Hungarorum as a work of fiction, while Romanian historians are struggling to prove its veracity.

Both sides are driven by petty national rivalries stemming from their respective historical claims over Transylvania. Hungarian historians are constantly trying to prove Romanian historians wrong and vice versa. According to them, Anonymus had no real knowledge of the situation in Transylvania at the time of the Magyar invasion, citing his references to the Cumans as an example. The Cumans only arrived in the region during the second half of the 11 th century, more than a hundred years after the events described in the chronicle took place.

The historicity of the autochthonous rulers, such as Menumorut and Gelou, is also fiercely debated. Needless to say, most Romanian historians subscribe to this view.

Growing up with folk tales and stories of past glories, he developed an interest in history and mythology from a young age.

Now he holds a degree in history, while also having studied and practiced archaeology. Romanian uhngarorum between the 9th and 13th centuries. Pechenegs in the Madrid Skylitzes.

According to Anonymus, Tuhutum was one of the seven Magyar chieftains. King Stephen puts Gyula in fetters from the Chronicon Pictum. Theoretical map of the origins of Romanians. Statue of Anonymus in Budapest. Demystifying Gelou was last modified: February 1st, by Alexandru. The Bosnian Crusade September 24, King Alboin and the Foundation of the The State Emblem of Uzbekistan May 24, The Punic Wars and the Fall of