; while some sources attribute to Simplicius the coining of the specific phrase “πάντα ῥεῖ (panta rhei)”, meaning “everything flows/is in a state of flux”. Teoria del divenire: tutto muta,ogni cosa è soggetta a trasformazioni. LogosParmenideo. Svegliedormienti. PANTA REI- ERACLITO. by Terza. 3 years ago Eraclito docet!! PANTA REI. Eraclito docet!! Done. Error loading comments. Retry. views. 0 faves. 5 comments. Taken on June 7, All rights reserved.

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He was of distinguished parentage. Little reii known about his early life and education, but he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom. From the lonely life he led, and still more from the apparently riddled [3] and allegedly paradoxical [4] nature of his philosophy and his stress upon the heedless unconsciousness of humankind, [5] he was called “The Obscure” and the “Weeping Panga.

Heraclitus was famous for his insistence on ever-present change as being the fundamental essence of the universeas stated in the famous saying, “No man ever steps in the same river twice” [6] see panta rhei below.

This is commonly considered to be one of the first digressions into the philosophical concept of becomingand has been contrasted with Parmenides statement that “what-is is” as one of the first digressions into the philosophical concept of being.

As such, Parmenides and Heraclitus are commonly considered to be two of the founders of ontology. Scholars have generally believed that either Parmenides pabta responding to Heraclitus, or Heraclitus to Parmenides, though opinion ercalito who was responding to whom changed over the course of the 20th century.

Through these doctrines Heraclitus characterized all existing entities by pairs of eracilto properties, whereby no entity may ever occupy pwnta single state at a single time. This, along with his cryptic utterance that “all entities come to be in accordance with this Logos ” literally, “word”, “reason”, or “account” has been the subject of numerous interpretations.

All the rest of the evidence—the people Heraclitus is said to have known, or the people who were familiar with his work—confirms the floruit. His dates of birth and death are based on a life span of 60 years, the age at which Diogenes says he died, [10] with the floruit in the middle.

Heraclitus was born to an aristocratic family c. Ephesus had been part of the Persian Empire since and was ruled by a satrapa more distant figure, as the Great King allowed the Ionians considerable autonomy. Two extant letters between Heraclitus and Darius Iquoted by Diogenes, are undoubtedly later forgeries. With regard to education, Diogenes says that Heraclitus was “wondrous” thaumasioswhich, as Socrates explains in Plato ‘s Theaetetus and Gorgiasis the beginning of philosophy from childhood.

Diogenes relates that Sotion said he was a “hearer” of Xenophaneswhich contradicts Heraclitus’ statement so says Diogenes that he had taught himself by questioning himself.

Burnet states in any case that ” Xenophanes left Ionia before Herakleitos was born. Diogenes relates that Heraclitus had a poor opinion of human affairs. Heraclitus hated the Athenians and his fellow Ephesians, wishing the latter wealth in punishment for their wicked ways. Heraclitus’ life as a philosopher was interrupted by dropsy. The physicians he consulted were unable to prescribe a cure. Diogenes lists various stories about Heraclitus’ death: In two versions, Heraclitus was cured of the dropsy and died of another disease.

In one account, however, the philosopher “buried himself in a cowshedexpecting that the noxious damp humour would be drawn out of him by the warmth of the manure”, while another says he treated himself with a liniment of cow manure and, after a day prone in the sun, died and was interred in the marketplace.

According to Neathes of Cyzicus, after smearing himself with dung, Heraclitus was devoured by dogs. He died after BC from a hydropsy.

Heraclitus – Wikipedia

Diogenes states that Heraclitus’ work was “a continuous treatise On Naturebut was divided into three discourses, one on the universe, another on politics, and a third on theology. Diogenes also tells us that Heraclitus deposited his book as a dedication in the great temple of Artemisthe Artemisiumone of the largest temples of the 6th century BCE and one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.


Ancient temples were regularly used for storing treasures, and were open to private individuals under exceptional circumstances; furthermore, many subsequent philosophers in this period refer to the work. As with the other pre-Socratics, his writings survive now only in fragments quoted by other authors. These are catalogued using the Diels—Kranz numbering system. At some time in antiquity he acquired this epithet denoting that his major sayings were difficult to understand.

The first of prayers, best known at all the temples, is mostly for riches Seeing this then do you not commend the one sage Democritus for laughing The motif was also adopted by Lucian of Samosata in his “Sale of Creeds”, in which the duo is sold together as a complementary product in the satirical auction of philosophers.

Subsequently, they were considered an indispensable feature of philosophic landscapes. Montaigne proposed two archetypical views of human affairs based on them, selecting Democritus’ for himself. This Logos holds always but humans always prove unable to understand it, both before hearing it and when they have first heard it. For though all things come to be in accordance with this Logoshumans are like the inexperienced when they experience such words and deeds as I set out, distinguishing each in accordance with its nature and saying how it is.

But other people fail to notice what they do when awake, just as they forget what they do while asleep. For this reason it is necessary to follow what is common.

But although the Logos is common, most people live as if they had their own private understanding. The meaning of Logos also is subject to interpretation: The later Stoics understood it as “the account which governs everything,” [38] and Hippolytusin the 3rd century CE, identified it as meaning the Christian Word of God. This famous aphorism used to characterize Heraclitus’ thought comes from Simplicius[41] a neoplatonistand from Plato’s Cratylus.

The word rhei as in rheology is the Greek word for “to stream”, and is etymologically related to Rhea according to Plato’s Cratylus. The philosophy of Heraclitus is summed up in his cryptic utterance: Potamoisi toisin autoisin embainousin, hetera kai hetera hudata epirrei “Ever-newer waters flow on those who step into the same rivers. The quote from Heraclitus appears in Plato ‘s Cratylus twice; in d as: The assertions of flow are coupled in many fragments with the enigmatic river image: We are and are not.


However, the German classicist and philosopher Karl-Martin Dietz interprets this fragment as an indication by Heraclitus, for the world as a steady constant: And this eracpito [ They go on simultaneously and instantaneously and result in “hidden harmony”. The transformation is a replacement of one element by another: This world, which is the paanta for all, no one of gods or men has made. But it always was and will be: All things are an interchange for fire, and fire for all things, just like goods for gold and gold for goods.

Heraclitus considered fire as the most fundamental element. He believed fire gave rise to the other elements and thus to all things. He regarded the soul eei being a mixture of fire and water, with fire being the noble part of the soul, and water the ignoble part.

A soul should therefore aim toward becoming more full of fire and less full of water: According to Heraclitus, worldly pleasures made the soul “moist”, and he considered mastering one’s worldly desires to be a noble eaclito which purified the soul’s fire.

If objects are new from moment to moment so that one can never touch the same object twice, then each object must dissolve and be generated continually momentarily and an object is a harmony between a building up and a tearing down. Pantz the bow metaphor Heraclitus compares the resultant to pantx strung bow held in shape by an equilibrium of the string tension and spring action of the bow: It is more accurate to speak of “the Divine” and not of “God”.

He removes the human sense of justice from his concept of God; i. Wisdom is “to know the thought by which all things are steered through all things”, [66] which must not imply that people are or can be wise.


Only Zeus is wise. In fact there is a note of despair: Whether in this context “daimon” can indeed be translated to mean “fate” is disputed; however, it lends much sense to Heraclitus’ observations and conclusions about human nature in general.

While the translation with “fate” is generally accepted as in Kahn ‘s “a man’s character is his divinity”, in some cases, it may also stand for the soul of the departed. To Heraclitus, a perceived object is a harmony between two fundamental units of change, a waxing and a waning.

He typically uses the ordinary word “to become” gignesthai or ginesthaipresent tense or aorist tense of the verb, with the root sense of “being born”which led to his being characterized as the philosopher of becoming rather than of being. He recognizes the fundamental changing of objects with the flow of time. Plato argues against Heraclitus as follows: How can that be a real thing which is never in the same state? In Plato one experienced unit is a state, or object existing, which can be observed.

The time parameter is set at “ever”; that is, the state is to be presumed present between observations. Change is to be deduced by comparing observations and is thus presumed a function that happens to objects already in being, rather than something ontologically essential to them such that something that does not change cannot exist as in Heraclitus. In Plato, no matter how many of those experienced units you are able to tally, you cannot get through the mysterious gap between them to account for the change that must be occurring there.

This limitation is considered a fundamental limitation of reality by Plato and in part underpins his differentiation between imperfect experience from more perfect Forms. The fact that this is no limitation for Heraclitus motivates Plato’s condemnation.

Stoicism was a philosophical school which flourished between the 3rd century BC and about the 3rd century AD. It pamta among the Greeks and became the major philosophy of the Roman Empire before declining with the rise of Christianity in the 3rd eraclitoo. Throughout their long tenure the Stoics believed that the major tenets of their philosophy etaclito from the thought of Heraclitus.

The Stoics were interested in Heraclitus’ treatment of fire. In addition to seeing it as the most fundamental of the four elements and the one erclito is quantified and determines the quantity logos of the other three, he presents fire as the cosmos, which was not made by any of the gods or men, but “was and is and ever shall be ever-living fire. The earliest surviving Stoic rri, the Hymn to Zeus of Cleanthes[77] though not explicitly referencing Heraclitus, adopts what appears to be the Heraclitean logos modified.

Zeus rules the universe with law nomos wielding on its behalf the “forked servant”, the “fire” of the “ever-living lightning. But then, says Cleanthes, Zeus uses the fire to “straighten out the common logos” that travels about phoitan”to frequent” mixing with the greater and lesser lights heavenly bodies. This is Heraclitus’ logos, but now it is confused with the “common nomos “, which Zeus uses to “make the wrong eracliholeft or odd right artiaright or even ” and “order kosmein the disordered akosma.

The Stoic modification of Heraclitus’ idea of the Logos eracljto also influential on Jewish philosophers such as Philo of Alexandria, who connected it to “Wisdom personified” as God’s creative principle.

Philo uses the term Logos throughout his treatises on Hebrew Scripture in a manner clearly influenced by the Stoics. The church fathers were the leaders of the early Christian Church during its first five centuries of existence, roughly contemporaneous to Stoicism under the Roman Empire.

The works of dozens of writers in hundreds of pages have survived. All of them had something to say about the Christian form of the Logos. The Catholic Church found it necessary to distinguish between the Christian logos and that of Heraclitus as part of its ideological distancing from paganism.