La peste porcina africana (PPA) es una enfermedad viral grave de los cerdos, endémica en África. . parasuis), enfermedad de Aujeszky (seudorrabia), púrpura. PDF | On, Enric Mateu and others published La enfermedad de Aujeszky. Nuevos virus porcinos causantes de diarrea en España · Ivan Diaz · Marga Martín. PDF | On Jan 1, , G. Borrallo and others published Parvovirosis porcina.
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Los botones se encuentran debajo. We will also talk about the economic impact the disease has had in the past and could have in the future. Additionally, we will talk about how it is transmitted, the species it affects, the clinical signs and necropsy findings, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Finally, sn will provide prevention and control measures for the disease and actions to take if CSF is suspected.
Photo courtesy of Dr. Only one CSFV serotype has been fond, but there is minor antigenic variability between strains. The virus can range from high to low virulence, resulting in acute, subacute, chronic and persistent forms of the disease in infected swine. CSFV is moderately fragile in the environment but may survive for 3 to 15 days in the environment longer periods in cold conditions. In a protein-rich environment, the virus is quite stable and can survive in refrigerated meat envermedad months and frozen meat for years.
The virus is not inactivated by smoking or salt curing. Cells infected with CSFV replicating on a cell culture monolayer. The figure shows a fast replicating, highly virulent oval and large plaque virus, and a slow replicating, lower virulence small and round plaques virus replicating on a cell plaque. La mayor parte de Europa Occidental y Central Classical swine fever CSF was first confirmed in the UK inand spread rapidly until when steps were taken to control the disease.
CSF was eradicated from Great Britain in Constant progress toward eradication has been made in Eastern Europe, stemming from guidelines developed for CSF control in individual states of Enfermevad Europe in InCSF was recognized in 36 countries, and was suspected of being present in two additional countries.
Cuarentena Sacrificio While CSF porcijos been eradicated from many countries, re-introduction is always a possibility. CSF can have a major impact on production, resulting in excessive morbidity and possibly mortality, as we al infertility and other deleterious health effects at the herd level.
Confirmed cases can lead to a ban on the import and export of pigs and pork products to many different countries. As an example, inan outbreak of CSF in the Netherlands spread to more than herds in the country. Similar re-introductions of the qujeszky have ocurred in the United Kingdomand other European countries On the farm, control will require quarantine and slaughter of pircinos and aujeszk swine. The disease has been reported in parts of Mexico.
The green areas indicate areas where CSF has never been porcios. The age and immune status of the animals also affects the disease outcome. Younger animals often have higher mortality rates than adult pigs.
Subacute disease usually has lower case-fatality rates compared to acute cases; mild cases of illness have lower mortality rates. Less virulent strains may be more difficult to detect as can chronic infections of CSF.
Only a few animals in the herd may show signs of illness and these signs can resemble other enfermefad diseases. Some infections of CSF can by asymptomatic; these animals may serve as carriers for further dissemination of the disease. Sources of virus include blood porcknos all tissues, secretions and excretion saliva, urine, feces, semen of sick and dead animals. Transmission primarily occurs from ingestion of the virus.
This can occur following feeding of contaminated garbage or meat products. Transfer of the virus can also occur through direct contact of pigs with infected animals; this can occur through the mucous membranes, conjunctiva, and skin abrasions. Transfer of the virus by contaminated objects fomitessuch as boots, vehicles, equipment is also possible. Aerosol spread can occur in confined spaces; however the virus does not travel long distances in the air.
This is a less common route of transmission as is transfer by insect vectors. Infected pigs are the only reservoir of virus. Humans are not susceptible to CSF infection. The incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 days. The clinical signs of CSF vary with the strain of the virus and the susceptibility of the pigs. More virulent strains cause acute disease, while less virulent strains can result in a high percentage of chronic, mild, or asymptomatic infections.
Highly virulent strains were once more prevalent, most epizootics are now caused by mild to moderately virulent strains. Clinical signs of CSF resemble other common swine diseases and are clinically indistinguishable from those ne African swine fever. Several days after the first symptoms appear, the abdomen, inner thighs and ears may become cyanotic purplish discoloration.
Hemorrhages can also occur in the skin. Incoordination, staggering, posterior paresis and convulsions may be seen in the terminal stages, and recovery is rare.
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Chronic disease symptoms include fever, anorexia, stunted growth, and alopecia; these symptoms may wax and wane for months. Chronic infections are almost always fatal. Reproductive symptoms may also be seen with any level of virulence.
Weak, huddling pigs Middle: Hemorrhages in the skin. Thanawongnuwech, Veterinary Pathology-Chulalongkorn University with permission. With acute infection, the most common lesion is hemorrhage, often seen on serosal and mucosal surfaces particularly the kidney, urinary bladder, epicardium, larynx, intestines, spleen and lungs.
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Necrotic foci are common in the tonsils, sometimes with pustules and severe congestion. There are numerous disseminated cortical petechiae enfremedad egg kidney”. The cortex contains multiple petechiae and pale infarcts surrounded by hemorrhage. Thanawongnuwech, Veterinary Pathology-Chulalongkorn University.
In congenitally infected piglets, common lesions include cerebellar hypoplasia, thymic atrophy, ascites, and deformities of the head and legs.
The mucosa is reddened and contains multiple discrete “button” ulcers surrounded by zones of hemorrhage. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and porcine circovirus associated diseases especially porclnos dermatitis nephritis syndrome should also be considered.
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Additional differentials include African swine fever, hemolytic disease of the newborn, thrombocytopenic purpura, anticoagulant e. Congenital infections with the pestiviruses that cause bovine virus diarrhea or border disease can resemble classical swine fever. Before collecting or sending any samples from animals with a suspected foreign animal disease, the proper authorities should be contacted. Samples should only be sent under secure conditions and to authorized laboratories to prevent the spread of the disease.
Other previously described clinical signs may be noted. History of the pigs or traffic onto the farm is also important. CSF can be distinguished by detecting the virus or its antigens in whole blood or tissue samples. CSF surveillance most commonly uses rRT-PCR real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing on tonsils and nasal swabs. Serology is used for diagnosis; the most commonly used tests are enfdrmedad neutralization tests and ELISAs.
The definitive test for differentiation is the comparative ej test. No treatment should be attempted for pigs suspected with CSF. Actions needed will be directed by these animal health authorities.
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Confirmed cases and in-contact animals should be slaughtered, and measures taken to protect other pigs in the area. This may entail complete herd slaughter combined with area restrictions dd pig movements, or vaccination depending on local disease control regulations.
Producers will only receive indemnity for animals destroyed under the order of animal health officials. In countries where classical swine fever is endemic, vaccines may be used to protect animals. Both modified live and subunit marker vaccines are manufactured, although availability varies with the country. Official herd quarantines may be imposed in efforts to control the spread of the disease.
Passive reporting is conducted by private practitioners or producers, diagnosticians, slaughter plant inspectors of suspicious cases with clinical signs similar to a foreign animal disease such as CSF. Additionally, active surveillance is conducted and involves specimen collection from high risk populations, such as waste feeding operations along the Texas — Mexican border.
Serum testing has declined dramatically as the focus has shifted to testing tissue samples e. The December CSF surveillance plan provides the rationale for this transition. Al secado A la luz ultravioleta pH menor a 3 o mayor a 11 Inactivado a altas temperaturas oF durante 30 minutos; oF durante 1 minuto CSFV is moderately fragile in the environment. The virus is sensitive to drying and ultraviolet light. It is rapidly inactivated by pH 3 or less or pH greater than The virus is stable at pH Sodium hypochlorite and phenolic compounds are effective disinfectants.
The virus can be destroyed by cooking at temperatures of Since the CSFV is stable in the tissues of infected animals, feeding these materials may transfer the virus to susceptible swine. Additionally, visitors onto the farm should be minimized. This is especially important for those who have traveled internationally within the last 5 days.
Some visitors are essential to the continued operation of the farm. For these individuals, they should check-in with farm personnel upon arrival and follow biosecurity measures while on the farm e.
Monitor and inspect animals daily for signs of illness or disease. Farm personnel should be familiar with signs to look for and who to contact when signs are noted. Vehicles and equipment can serve as fomites for the spread of the virus. They should be cleaned after each use.
Additionally, boots should be disinfected and clean clothing should always be worn when coming in contact with pigs. Additionally, because pigs can be asymptomatic or can shed the virus before clinical signs are seen, newly purchased or returning animals should be quarantined a minimum of 30 days prior to introduction into the herd.
Keeping health records on every animal is equally as important as it will help in the history and possible trace back if needed for the animals in the herd. While vaccination can protect animals from clinical disease, it does not eliminate infections and therefore may be inappropriate in countries with an eradication policy.