Stoikiometri n energetika kimia. 7 likes. Book. Stoikiometri n energetika kimia. Privacy · Terms. About. Stoikiometri n energetika kimia. Book. 7 people like this. Title, Stoikiometri Energetika Kimia. Edition. Call Number, ACH p. ISBN/ ISSN, Author(s), ACHMAD, Hiskia · TUPAMAHU, M S. Subject(s) . KIMIA ORGANIK FISIK. Review: Hibridisasi, resonansi, konjugasi, hiperkonjugasi (1). Reaksi dasar organik, kinetika, energetika, stereokimia, dan mekanisme.

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Share buttons are a little bit lower. Published by Alexina Dortha Ross Modified over 2 years ago. Hibridisasi, resonansi, konjugasi, hiperkonjugasi 1. Reaksi dasar organik, kinetika, energetika, stereokimia, dan mekanisme reaksi 2. Faktor-faktor yang menentukan mekanisme reaksi 6 Mekanisme reaksi radikal bebas 7.

Reaksi adisi pada alkena 9,10,11 Reaksi adisi pada gugus karbonil energetkka, 13 Reaksi perisiklik 14 Reaksi polimerisasi 15 Sumber belajar: Over 10 million compounds have been identified. About new ones are identified each day! C is a small atom. It forms single, double and triple bonds.

It is intermediate in electronegativity 2. It forms strong bonds with C, H, O, N, and some metals. An extranuclear space, diameter m, which contains negatively charged electrons.

The outermost occupied electron shell of an atom. Electrons in the valence shell of an atom; these electrons are used to form chemical bonds and in chemical energtika. The symbol of an element represents the nucleus and all inner shell electrons. Dots represent electrons in the valence shell of the atom.

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An atom that gains electrons becomes an anion. An atom that loses electrons becomes a cation. The attraction of energetiak and cations leads to the formation of ionic solids. This ionic interaction is often referred to as an ionic bond. An atom may share electrons with enrrgetika or more atoms to complete its valence shell; a chemical bond formed by sharing electrons is called a covalent bond. Bonds may be partially ionic or partially covalent; these bonds are called polar covalent bonds.

Pauling scale Generally increases left to right enertetika a row. Generally increases bottom to top in a column. Ions will form kmiia the difference in electronegativity between interacting atoms is 1. The shared pair functions in two ways simultaneously; it is shared by the two atoms and fills the valence shell of each atom.

The number of shared pairs One shared pair forms a single bond Two shared pairs form a double bond Three shared pairs form a triple bond. We divide covalent bonds into nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds.

A measure of the polarity of a covalent bond. The energstika of the charge on either atom of a polar bond times the distance between the two nuclei. Determine the arrangement of atoms. Connect the atoms by single bonds. Arrange the remaining electrons so that each atom has a complete valence shell. Show a bonding pair of electrons as a single line. Show a nonbonding pair of electrons a lone pair as a neergetika of dots. In a single bond atoms share one pair of electrons, in a double bond they share two pairs of electrons and in a triple bond they share three pairs of electrons.


The charge on an atom in a molecule or a polyatomic ion.

mimia To derive formal charge 1. Write a correct Lewis structure for the molecule or ion. Assign each atom all its unshared nonbonding electrons and one-half its shared bonding electrons.

Compare this number with the number of valence electrons in the neutral, unbonded atom. The sum of all formal charges is equal to the total charge on the molecule or ion. Draw Lewis structures, and show which atom in each bears the formal charge.

The P snergetika trimethylphosphine obeys the octet rule by having three bonds and one unshared pair. A common depiction of phosphoric acid, however, has five bonds to P, which is explained by invoking the use of 3d orbitals to accommodate the additional bonds. An alternative representation that gives P in phosphoric acid an octet has four bonds and a positive formal charge on P.

The oxygen involved in the double bond of the alternative depiction has one bond and a negative formal charge. In each of the alternative structures, sulfur obeys the octet rule. Ethanol may also be written as energetkia condensed structural formula. A derivative of a carboxylic acid in which the carboxyl hydrogen is replaced by a carbon group. The vector sum of the individual bond dipole moments in a molecule. Areas of relatively low calculated electron density are shown in blue. Intermediate electron densities are represented by intermediate colors.

Combination of n atomic orbitals gives n MOs. MOs are arranged in order of increasing energy. MO filling is governed by the same rules as for atomic orbitals: A MO in which energeetika have a lower energy than they would have in isolated atomic orbitals. Sigma s bonding molecular orbital: A MO in which electron density is concentrated between two nuclei along the axis joining them and is kimja symmetrical. A MO in which electrons have a higher energy than they would in isolated atomic orbitals.

Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals A principle of VB theory is that bonds enregetika created by the overlap of atomic orbitals. Therefore in VB theory, bonds are localized between adjacent atoms rather than delocalized over several atoms as in MO theory. The VB model correlates with Lewis pictures where kimiaa electrons are visualized between atoms as a bond.

However, localization of bonds between atoms presents the following problem. In forming covalent kumia, atoms of C, N, and O use 2s and 2p atomic orbitals. However, we rarely observe these bond angles. Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals Instead, we find bond angles of approximately Linus Pauling proposed that atomic orbitals for each atom combine to form new atomic orbitals, called hybrid orbitals, which form bonds by overlapping with orbitals from other atoms.


Hybrid orbitals are formed by combinations of atomic orbitals by a process called hybridization. Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals The number of hybrid orbitals formed is equal to the number of atomic orbitals combined. Elements of the 2nd period form three types of hybrid orbitals, designated sp3, sp2, and sp. The mathematical combination of one 2s atomic orbital and three 2p atomic eneryetika forms four equivalent sp3 hybrid orbitals.

Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals Figure 1. Hybridization kikia Atomic Orbitals Figure Orbital overlap pictures of methane, ammonia, and water.

Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals The mathematical combination of one 2s atomic orbital wave function and two 2p atomic orbital wave functions forms three equivalent sp2 hybrid orbitals. In BH3 the unhybridized 2p orbital is empty.

Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals The mathematical combination of one 2s kikia orbital and one 2p atomic orbital gives two equivalent sp hybrid orbitals.

These pairs create bonds. Further, organic chemists commonly use atomic orbitals involved in three hybridization states of atoms sp3, sp2, and sp to create orbitals to match the experimentally observed geometries. How do we make orbitals that contain electrons that reside between adjacent atoms? For this, we turn back to MO theory. The sp3 hybrid orbitals of carbon each point to a 1s orbital of hydrogen and, therefore, we add and subtract these atomic orbitals to create molecular orbitals.

As with H2, one eergetika MO is lower in energy eneryetika the two separated atomic orbitals, and is called a bonding s orbital. The other is higher in energy and is antibonding. Carbon uses a combination of sp2 hybrid orbitals and the unhybridized 2p orbital to form double bonds. Individual Lewis structures are called contributing structures. Connect individual contributing structures by kimla resonance arrows.

The molecule or ion is a hybrid of the various contributing structures. A symbol used to show the redistribution of valence electrons. In using curved arrows, there are only two allowed types of electron redistribution: Electron pushing energteika critical throughout organic chemistry.

The negative charge is distributed equally among the three oxygens. Structures that carry a negative charge on the more electronegative atom contribute more than those with the negative charge on a less electronegative atom. M and by appointment. Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds. Unit 7 last one!!!!