Zadania na zajęciach były zbliżone do zadań które mogą wystąpić w .. sugerowali sposób rozwiązania zadań, napisali programu do sterownika PLC .. Na zajęciach zrealizowano zagadnienia z działu: Termodynamika, Elektrostatyka i Prąd. Fizyka- rozwiązania zadań do rozdziału piątego “Siły w przyrodzie” podręcznika Świat Fizyki klasa 2. Aplikacj Fizyka Wzory, Prawa 3Gim. aAndroid. Aplikacja. Metody badań i pomiarów – Badanie odporności na wyładowania elektrostatyczne (oryg.). . Jako przykład takiego rozwiązania można tu wymienić zrealizowane w roku Jego zadanie polega na wytworzeniu odpowiedniej więcej».

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Switching Power Supply Design Handbook – third edition. Practical Switching Power Supply Design.

Kształcenie umiejętności w nowosolskim “Elektryku” kluczem do sukcesu zawodowego – Strona Główna

Electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility. Switching Power Supply Design – third edition. Electromagnetic compatibility in distributed power systems ang. Streszczenie The article presents the issues regarding correct design of power circuits in multi-module electronic devices. At present, in more and more distributed power networks, DC-DC insulated galvanic converters are used. The high level of electromagnetic disturbances, both radiated and conductive, consist the key problem.

The results of investigations of radiated and conductive disturbances emission of low impulse power supply developed on the basis of the guidelines contained in the article are presented. The test methods have been developed with the standardized ways for the radiated and conducted electromagnetic disturbances measurements determining maximum levels of disturbances for different groups of devices operating in specific environments.

Guidelines for electromagnetic disturbances immunity tests are given in [], while the standards [] apply to issues related eozwizaniami the elekteostatyka emission.

Propagation paths of electromagnetic disturbances are known and effective methods of reducing them to levels not higher than the required standards were developed. During the tests the device is treated as a functional whole, the resultant electromagnetic disturbances level is assessed.

Generally the electrical construction of the equipment under test is not considered in detail, as well as issues related to its internal electromagnetic compatibility. Such test procedures, in conjunction with frequent neglect of the EMC issues, may make the complex multi-module devices work erratically and exhibit greater susceptibility to external electromagnetic disturbances.

The main propagation paths of internal conducted disturbances include power circuits. Equally harmful effect on the operation of the device is caused by large electromagnetic disturbances coming from radiated emission sources which are very often the individual circuit blocks.

The designer should take care not only about the correct design of the electronics but also about electronic modules included in the zadwnia which should meet the relevant standards supply requirements rozwizaniamk EMC.

Especially important issue is the right solution for the electrical part and the printed circuit board so as to ensure the compliance of the designed device with EMC. Mining equipment tests carried out by author and National Institute of Zadsnia team since show that there is well noticeable and confirmed need for the standardization of requirements for the machines and other equipment used in underground mines what was presented in some of previous papers co-authored by the author of this paper [1, 2].

But not only the standardization of requirements is necessary, but also there is a strong need for specially modified test methods that can be used for EMC testing of the mining equipment.

Accumulation of equipment on a relatively small surface elektrotsatyka them to be relatively high resistant to the disturbances rozwjzaniami in this environment, however, elektrlstatyka to the specificity of this environment and its conditions, it becomes necessary to adapt the methods to the tested objects. Beside the practical problems of mining equipment EMC testing and the description of the cases of incorrect or faulty work of mining equipment as the result of not complying with the electromagnetic compatibility requirements, paper presents the significance of the issue of mining equipment EMC testing.

On the other hand it brings the essence of the issue closer to the reader, and points to the need for further work in this area, not only to meet the requirements for the products but primarily to ensure the safety of miners. The issues described in this article are becoming from year to year even more important, in particular, rozwuzaniami of the dynamics of the automation of the extraction processes, which in turn calls out for the significant increase of the data transmission from different sensors.


The distributed generation of electricity is an option that is being considered seriously around the world, especially in countries where the centralized power generation system is very old and causes large environmental pollution.

One of the main problems encountered in distributed generation is the possible formation of isolation conditions rozqizaniami called the island that can continue to work normally even if the electrical grid is disconnected [2].

For applications without detection and correction, it is better to combine more methods for detection of islanding detection based on other work processes [3].

The distribution generation is considered to be in unity power factor operation [4]. This unity power factor condition combined with rozwizainami parameters of parallel RLC load and frequency, as given in 1 – 4is considered the worst case for islanding detection when the active power of load matches to output power of distribution generation.

The quality factor Qf of RLC load is set to be 2. The quality factor is defined as that the reactive power stored in L or C is at times the active power consumed in R.

R – effective load resistance [W], L – effective load inductance [H], C – effective load capacitance [F], P – active power [W], Qf – quality factor, f – elektrostattyka frequency [Hz]. Charakterystyki magnesowania blach elektrotechnicznych, w tym tzw. Generators of voltage and current transients are used for many years in experimental research related to the phenomenon of lightning [1,2].

They can be used to reproduce direct and indirect effects of lightning, which are observed in rozwizaiami objects and those above the surface rozwizanizmi the earth. One of such studies is based on simulating an indirect impact of lightning discharge using a dedicated set of generators. It turns out that thanks to its construction and properties it is also suitable for other applications in the lightning research. In addition elektrostatuka analyzing overvoltages in the onboard systems of aircraft [3], other examples of application of modular impulse generators will be provided below.

Discharge modules are the basic units of these generators rozwizaniai Fig. They can be configured in series or parallel to offer an optimum solution. One module includes high voltage capacitor, power-electronic switches, the trigger and polarity reversal circuits and a part of the impulse shaping circuit. Depending on the selected shape, level and number of generated elktrostatyka the number of modules and impulse forming networks changes as shown for example in Fig.

Three different shapes of current or voltage: Electrical steel ES is the most widely used soft magnetic material in the electrical industry. Better understanding of the magnetization processes associated with magnetizing frequency and influence of elektrrostatyka anisotropy can help in improvement of modeling of magnetic properties of Rozwiznaiami. Better modeling of ES elejtrostatyka correct hysteresis modeling which is mandatory for an accurate design of circuits including magnetic cores.

These models are implemented in electronic circuit simulators and should include frequency and anisotropic behavior of magnetic parameters. Particularly, the influence of magnetizing frequency increases its significance as increases working frequency of electrical devices and thereby their magnetic cores. Together with increasing frequency new, thinner ES with Goss texture are produced. This shows that the importance of the magnetic anisotropy increases as it changes with frequency.

An investigation of the specific total loss PS separation in ES at different angles x to rolling direction RD was performed. The separation of the specific total loss into components was performed using three e,ektrostatyka model.

Elekrostatyka dependence of the hysteresis and additional eddy current PS loss components on magnetic anisotropy is shown as well as their interdependence. It was found leektrostatyka both hysteresis and additional eddy current loss components x strongly dependent on the magnetization angle x and their flux density behavior is very similar to each other. Better understanding of anisotropy influence on PS loss also may offer additional information for improvement of magnetic properties of ES.

The aim of rozwizwniami paper is to present calculation method taking into account not only frequency but also magnetic anisotropy. It also provides a contribution to the better understanding of PS loss in ES. Pulse disturbance generated by transient phenomena during switching processes within power distribution network has significant capability to disrupt the function of electronic devices; specially devices with digital circuits.


According to relevant standards the representative parameters of testing pulses were established as: The standard EFT test waveform is shown in Fig. The main task was to find the condition under which their behaviours are comparable. Then one could perform both tests using the same coupling network only changing disturbing sources.

The coupling of EFT pulses is realized via 33 nF capacitor. Design of CDN is specified in the standard [3]. The problem is that the test cable should be necessary to interrupt and connect via the CDN. Another problem is that the CDN coupling is suitable only for simple power cables 2 or 3 wires cable. In case of other cable interfaces the corresponding rozwizaaniami [3] prescribes to use special capacitive clamp and also its construction.

Known encryption algorithms and methods are built in positional number systems. Non-traditional algorithms created on the elekttostatyka of positional number systems and cryptographic methods make it possible to increase the crypto-stability and efficiency of encryption algorithms.

Creation of cryptographic algorithms models of information protection is considered on the basis of positional rozwizaniaami systems using the features of the algebraic method. A feature is the implementation of positioning systems based on residual classes. At the same time, information protection is carried out by effective software as a module of combining cryptographic system.

This cryptographic information security, as well as processing information in a local and distributed information environment designed to prevent unauthorized access to objects in the environment can be used as an internal information security system. Among the tasks of the information protection system are identification, authentication and authorization or access isolation of users when providing secure access to local or remote data. The information protection system includes the developed multicriterial system of access isolation MSAI.

MSAI will be adapted for this information security system.

It provides the user with a secure access area in the form of information resources group available to it in accordance with its authority. The main objective of MSAI, as a subsystem of the information protection system, is to provide multicriterial access to multilevel or classified data.

A software implementation of the information system will be implemented. In our country mainly foreign software, hardware applications of information protection are used. These applications are naturally transparent to their developers. In Japan, with the increasingly widespread use of rozwizanlami diodes LEDselectrical goods manufacturers have substantially downscaled traditional lighting, such as incandescent electric lamps and fluorescent light tubes.

Additionally, the Japanese government has established policies to prohibit the manufacture and importation of traditional lighting by the end of [1].

Fizyka Elektrostatyka kl. 3

Moreover, Baumgartner et al. Therefore, hospitals will be entirely lit by LED lamps in the near future.

LED lamps have been widely introduced in clinical settings to save energy and reduction of cost. Until recently, LED lamps were more expensive than traditional lighting devices, but their prices have gradually decreased. Additionally, the introduction of LED rozwiaaniami reduces the total operating cost. In hospitals, in addition to room lighting, LEDs are used for shadowless lamps, oral cavity lighting, and lighting goggles used in operations.

Inpoor reception of analogue television and radio broadcasting signals occurred after the installation of LED lamps along shopping streets in north-eastern Japan [3]. In hospitals, EMI with wireless medical telemetry systems may occur.

Wireless medical telemetry systems are medical devices that transmit patient vital signs, such as electrocardiograms, respiratory waveforms, blood pressure, electromyograms, and oxygen saturation of arterial blood, to a patient monitor by radio waves.

In Japan, the to MHz frequency band and 2. However, ISM bands are also used for elektrodtatyka purposes, such as wireless local area network, microwave oven and cordless phone.

Extended meshed earthing systems, called grounding grids, are commonly used in large installations, such as substations, to protect and safeguard personnel and equipment against the hazards and devastation that may be caused zadabia the flow of fault currents [1].

They also provide reference voltages for electrical and electronic systems.