Seis Grados De Separacion / Six Degrees: La ciencia de las redes en la era del acceso/The Science of a Connected Age Author: Duncan J. Watts. Buy Seis Grados De Separacion / Six Degrees: La ciencia de las redes en la era del by Duncan J. Watts (ISBN: ) from Amazon’s Book Store. Seis Grados De Separacion / Six Degrees by Duncan J. Watts, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
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Six degrees of separation is the idea that all living things and everything else in the world are six or fewer steps away from each other so that a chain of ” a friend of a friend ” statements can be made to connect any two people in a maximum of six steps.
It was originally set out by Frigyes Karinthy in and popularized in an eponymous play written by John Guare. It watts sometimes generalized to the average social distance being logarithmic in the size of the population. Theories on optimal design of cities, city traffic flows, neighborhoods, and demographics were in vogue after World War I. These [ citation needed ] conjectures were expanded in by Hungarian author Frigyes Karinthywho published a volume of short stories titled Everything is Different.
One of these aeparacion was titled “Chains,” or “Chain-Links. In particular, Karinthy believed that the modern world was ‘shrinking’ due to this ever-increasing connectedness of human beings. He posited eeis despite great physical distances between the globe’s individuals, the growing density of human networks made the actual social distance far smaller.
As a result of this hypothesis, Karinthy’s characters believed that any two individuals could be connected through at most five acquaintances. In his story, the characters create a game out of this notion. A fascinating game grew out of this discussion. One of us suggested performing the following experiment to prove that the population of the Earth is closer together now than they have ever been before.
We should select any person from the 1. He bet us that, using no more than five individuals, one of whom is a personal acquaintance, he could contact the selected individual using nothing except the network of personal acquaintances. This idea both directly and indirectly influenced a great deal of early thought on social networks.
Karinthy has been regarded as separacioh originator of the notion of six degrees of separation. The theory of three degrees of influence was created by Nicholas A. Christakis and James H. Michael Gurevich conducted seminal work in his empirical study of the structure of social networks in his Massachusetts Institute of Technology PhD dissertation under Ithiel de Sola Pool.
In a [socially] structured population it is less likely but still seems probable.
: Duncan J. Watts: Books
Brados perhaps for the whole world’s population, probably only one more bridging individual should be needed. The simulations, carried out on the relatively limited computers ofwere nonetheless able to predict that a more realistic three degrees of separation existed across the U. Milgram continued Gurevich’s experiments in acquaintanceship networks at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, U. Kochen and de Sola Pool’s manuscript, Contacts and Influences was conceived while both were working at the University of Paris in the early s, during a time when Wattss visited and collaborated in their research.
Their unpublished manuscript circulated among academics for over 20 years before publication in It formally articulated the mechanics of social networks, and explored the mathematical consequences of these including the degree of connectedness.
The manuscript left many significant questions about networks unresolved, and one of these was the number of degrees of separation in actual social networks. Milgram took up the challenge on his return from Parisleading to the experiments reported in The Small World Problem  in popular science journal Psychology Todaywith a more rigorous version of the paper appearing in Sociometry two years later. Milgram’s article made famous  his set of experiments to investigate de Sola Pool and Kochen’s “small world problem.
This circle of researchers was fascinated by the interconnectedness and “social capital” of human networks.
Milgram’s study results showed that people in the United States seemed to be connected by approximately three friendship links, on average, without speculating on global linkages; he never actually used the term “six degrees of separation. InColumbia University conducted an analogous experiment on social connectedness amongst Internet email users. Their effort was named the Columbia Small World Project, and included 24, e-mail chains, aimed at 18 targets from 13 different countries around the world.
Amongst the successful chains, while shorter lengths were more common some cuncan their target after only 7, 8, 9 or 10 steps.
The authors cite “lack of interest” as the predominating factor in the high attrition rate, [Note 2] a finding consistent with earlier studies. Several studies, such as Milgram’s small world experimenthave been conducted to measure this connectedness empirically. The phrase “six degrees of separation” is often used as a synonym for the idea of the “small world” phenomenon. However, detractors argue that Milgram’s experiment did not demonstrate such a link,  and the “six degrees” claim has been decried as an “academic urban myth “.
InDuncan Wattsa professor at Columbia Universityattempted to recreate Milgram’s experiment on the Internet, using an e-mail message as the “package” that needed to be delivered, with 48, senders and 19 targets in countries. Watts found that the average though not maximum number of intermediaries was around six. They found the average path length among Microsoft Messenger users to be 6. It has been suggested by some commentators  that interlocking networks of computer mediated lateral communication could diffuse single messages to all interested users worldwide as per the 6 degrees of separation principle via Information Routing Groups, which are networks specifically designed to exploit this principle and lateral diffusion.
They have introduced new search techniques to provide optimal or near optimal solutions. The experiments are performed using Twitter, and they show an improvement of several orders of magnitude over greedy approaches.
Their optimal algorithm finds an average degree of separation of 3. A near-optimal solution of length 3. No longer limited strictly to academic or philosophical thinking, the notion of six degrees recently has become influential throughout popular culture.
Further advances in communication technology — and particularly the Internet — have drawn great attention to social networks and human interconnectedness.
As a result, many popular media sources have addressed the term. The following provide a brief outline of the ways such ideas have shaped popular culture.
American playwright John Guare wrote a play in and later released a film in that popularized it. It is Guare’s most widely known work. The play ruminates upon the idea that any two individuals are connected by at most five others. As one of the characters states:. I read somewhere that everybody on this planet is separated by only six other people. Six degrees of separation between us and everyone else on this planet. The President of the United States, a gondolier in Venice, just fill in the names.
I find it A extremely comforting that we’re so close, and B like Chinese water torture that we’re so close because you have to find the right six people to make the right connection I am bound to everyone on this planet by a trail of six people. Guare, in interviews, attributed his awareness of the “six degrees” to Marconi. Abramsthe executive producer of television series Six Degrees and Lostplayed the role of Doug in the film adaptation of this play.
The game ” Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon ”  was invented as a play on the concept: It was created by three students at Albright College in Pennsylvania,  who came up with the concept while watching Footloose. On September 13,Google made it possible to search for any given actor’s ‘Bacon Number’ through their search engine. Music critics have fun tracing the history and dissecting the popular song ” Der Kommissar ” which was first written and recorded by Austrian musician Falco with German vocals inthen passed on and reworked in English by British band After The Fire inthen lyrically rewritten and renamed “Deep In The Dark” by Laura Branigan in in the U.
In this situation, connections among six such diverse musical expressionists were generated through a song. In the beginning, the composer might never have thought that the song could spread so far. However, the six degree has demonstrated that “the small world” does exist. An early version involved former world Heavyweight boxing champion, John L.
Sullivan, in which people would ask others to “shake the hand that shook the hand that shook the hand that shook the hand of ‘the great John L. In late Februarythe website www. This site takes any two Wikipedia articles and finds the various hyperlink paths that interconnect the two in the least number of clicks.
It then shows each of the steps that were taken to do so and also presents a graphical display of the connections. From these, the number of searches that required six or more degrees was 1. It also stated that searches with no connection found was 1.
A Facebook platform application named “Six Degrees” was developed by Karl Bunyan, which calculates the degrees of separation between different people.
It had over 5. The average separation for all users of the application is 5. The application has a “Search graddos Connections” window to input any name of a Separaacion user, to which it then shows the chain of connections. In JuneBunyan shut down the application, presumably due to issues with Facebook’s caching policy; specifically, the policy prohibited the storing of friend lists for more than 24 hours, which would have made the application inaccurate.
The initial version of the application was built at a Facebook Developers Garage London hackathon with Mark Zuckerberg in attendance.
Research Small World Experiment has been conducting an experiment and everyone with a Facebook account can take part in it.
According to the research page, this research has the potential of resolving the still unresolved theory of six degrees of separation. Facebook’s data team released two papers in November which document that amongst all Facebook users at the time of research million users with 69 billion friendship links there is an average distance of 4. Facebook reported that the distance had decreased to 4. The LinkedIn professional networking site operates the degree of separation one is away from a person with which he or she wishes to communicate.
On LinkedInone’s network is made up of 1st-degree, 2nd-degree, and 3rd-degree connections and fellow members of LinkedIn Groups.
In addition, LinkedIn notifies the user how many connections they and any other user have in common. It allowed users to list friends, family members and acquaintances, send messages and post bulletin board items to people in their first, second, and third degrees, and see their connection to any other user on the site. At its height, it had 3, fully registered members. Users on Twitter can follow other users creating a network. According to a study of 5. In another work, researchers have shown that the average distance of 1, random users in Twitter is 3.
They calculated the distance between each pair of users using all the active users in Twitter. Mathematicians use an analogous notion of collaboration distance: Co-author wwatts linkages were determined for 1 top authors within the I-O community, 2 quasi-random faculty members of highly productive I-O programs in North America, and 3 publication trends of the target. Results suggest that the small world phenomenon is alive and well with mean linkages of 3.
The author then provided a series of implications and suggestions for future research. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.