Poesias Cartas Chilenas. Front Cover. Tomás Antônio Gonzaga, Manuel Rodrigues Lapa. Instituto Nacional do Livro, – pages. Title, Poesias: cartas chilenas. Author, Tomás António Gonzaga. Editor, Manuel Rodrigues Lapa. Publisher, Instituto Nacional do livro, Length, pages. Baixar Cartas chilenas Tomás António Gonzaga livro online, Publicada em , esta obra foi escrita em versos decassílabos. Nela tem-se a correspondência.

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The Inconfidentes were a loose group of friends and business associates, mostly coming from what Maxwell describes as the plutocracy of Minas Gerais Maxwellp. In addition, there was considerable resistance to the autocratic habits of the Governor.

He was the son of one of the confidants of Pombal. His father had been born in Brazil and was a magistrate who had been Ouvidor in Pernambuco, and who had occupied important posts in Bahia and Porto, Portugal. I showed that at a number of levels translation had an important role to play.

This copy, which belonged to Tiradentes, the most famous Inconfidente, was passed around from hand to hand, and Tiradentes asked his friends and associates to translate sections. Whilst translating these sections Tiradentes hoped that the translator would become interested in the laws and basic concepts of an independent free-standing country, which had rid itself of domination and interference from its colonizer.

Thus initially we find Tiradentes depending on what has become known as Natural Translation, translation practiced in informal settings by nonqualified translators, usually members of the family and friends, but with the design of winning over the translators to the ,ivro of the Inconfidentes. Many of the Inconfidentes were members of the intellectual elite of Ouro Preto, read foreign literature, usually in French, and translated.

Surprisingly, it was only translated into Portuguese in Finally, I looked at translation as representation and analyze the way in which the hanging of Tiradentes has been represented in Brazil and show how he became an iconic figure in Brazilian history. This article did not cover Cartas Chilenas.

Pseudotranslations Gideon Toury gives a number of examples of pseudotranslations: Toury also mentions Papa Hamlet, a pseudotranslation translated from the Norwegian, published in Leipzig, which enjoyed considerable popularity and actually functioned as an original for several months in before the authorship of German writers, Arno Holzand Johannes Schlafwas discovered. She began to research an American cyberpunk author, Wayne Chapman, born in Concord, Massachusetts, and who had also published with Pendragon Cxrtas Co.

We can differentiate chienas such as Lord of the Rings and Don Quijote, where presenting a work as a pseudotranslation is used as a literary technique, a frame to distance the work from the writer, and maybe, as in the case of Quijote, anticipating possible censorship, but with the reader never really believing the work is really a translation.


Apart from hardcore Tolkien fans, there are few that believe that Lord of the Rings was actually translated from Elvish. In the case of Ossian, Macpherson s invention of the Scots Gaelic poems was an attempt to further his literary career, as were the pseudotranslations made by the Russian poetasters mentioned by Toury.

The Cartas Chilenas clearly belong to the first type. They circulated in pamphlet form in Minas Gerais during Meneses government, and the parallels with the situation in Minas Gerais during the government of Meneses cadtas very clear, and no one with the least knowledge of contemporary Minas could have believed that it was actually a translation. Indeed, it seems that Gonzaga was writing for a coterie of friends and acquaintances, and he also hoped that the Cartas would find chilejas way to the Portuguese court.


They do not criticize Portuguese rule in Brazil itself, merely the abuses of Meneses.

The pseudotranslation technique is no more than an insurance policy against possible reprisals. If questioned by the Portuguese authorities, Gonzaga could say that liveo Cartas Chilenas were actually a translation. The frontispiece gives the following information Gonzagap.

Escritas em espanhol pelo poeta Critilo. Written chilenqs Spanish by the poet Critilo. The Prologue, written by the anonymous translator, frames the pseudotranslation. Certain references are very specific. Likewise, the cryptonyms are easy to decipher: In Carta 5 Chile is, like Minas Gerais, mentioned as being a gold-mining area. There are clear references to the Derrama in Carta 7. The tone of the Cartas Chilenas is always quite vehement.

Who appears live in this enterprise.

Cartas Chilenas

He is also lascivious, bestial, venial, insane, open to bribery and flattery; he is spendthrift, capricious in his administration; he is surrounded by sycophants and favours those acrtas deserve no favours; he ignores also protocol. However, no references are made to Chile other than its name: What misfortunes await you! How much cnilenas it would be, if you felt The plagues, which in Egypt wept, Which you will see, and which climb up to your government, You cartws dandy, surrounded by Fools, rogues, and carta.

Gonzaga had officially complained to the Portuguese Chi,enas twice, in andabout Meneses behaviour, and it seems that the Cartas Chilenas are much more of a personal critique of the abuses of Meneses, who had upset the gentlemen s agreement between the local elite and the Portuguese government than a proto-republican document Furtado Quite obviously, Gonzaga had to disguise the Cartas Chilenas as a pseudotranslation because of censorial measures against himself or his work Touryp.

By contrast, the Republic adopted Tiradentes as the national Brazilian hero. They believed that a break with Portugal would both improve their own positions and help for economic expansion. In December they began to sketch their ideas for the new republic. With the Derrama, it would be easy to attract the support of all sectors of society, and the business sector in particular was strongly against the enormous restrictions which the Portuguese crown placed on Brazilian manufacturing.

The restrictions on the diamond industry would be lifted, and manufacturing industries and lviro gunpowder factory would be established. The Catholic Church would receive funds for hospitals and homes through tithes. Minas Gerais needed to be populated, and women who had lots of children would be rewarded.

Cartas Chilenas – Wikisource

And, following the American Constitution, no national army would be set up, but the citizens would join a national militia when required. There would be a parliament in each town, which would be subject to a general parliament in the capital.

Chilnas would be the governor for three years, and then elections would take place. There would be no difference between chileans, and everyone should wear locally produced clothes, thereby stimulating the local textile industry. And for Maxwell, most importantly of all, all debtors to the Royal Treasury in Portugal would be pardoned.


Tiradentes was captured and imprisoned, as were the other Inconfidentes. The sentence was finally pronounced on 18 April in Rio de Janeiro, taking some 18 hours. Tiradentes was condemned to be hung, drawn and quartered, and the parts of his body would be taken to Vila Rica, where chhilenas head would be impaled in the centre of the town and parts of body exhibited along roads leading to Rio.

His house in Rio should be destroyed and land salted. Then, theatrically, a letter from the Queen of Portugal was read out to pardon them all except Tiradentes, who was hanged on the morning of 21 April in the centre of Rio de Janeiro Cartap.

There Maciel became friends with the governor and chilejas iron mines, becoming owner of one of the most important smelting factories. A Devassa da Devassa: Paz e Terra, Originally published as Conflicts and Conspiracies: Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond.

Proposed field of study: Introduction to Luso-Brazilian Literatures 4.

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