BIOMECHANICS OF OVERHAND THROWING WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR INJURIES PDF

Proper throwing mechanics may enable an athlete to achieve maximum performance with minimum chance of injury. While quantifiable differences do exist in. Adis International Limited. All rights reserved. Biomechanics of Overhand Throwing with Implications for Injuries. Glenn S. Fieisig, Steven w. Barrentine, Rafael F. required if a better understanding of the biomechanics of overhand throwing motion are to .. Biomechanics of overhand throwing with implications for injuries .

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When refering to evidence in academic writing, you should always try to reference implkcations primary original source. That is usually the journal article where the information was first stated. In most cases Physiopedia articles are a secondary source and so should not be used as references.

Physiopedia articles are best used to find the original sources of information see the references list at the bottom of the article.

If you believe that this Physiopedia article is the primary source for the information you are refering to, you can use the button below to access a related citation statement. Original Editor – Naomi O’Reilly. Throwing, for example baseball pitching, is one of the most intensely injhries athletic motions [1].

The wind up phase is defined as the initial movement to maximum knee lift of stride leg [3]. During the initial movements the pitcher brings his or her hands overhead and lowers to chest level. During these simple movements consider the muscles proximally to distally.

During this phase the muscle activity is quite low and for these reasons risk of injury is low as well [3]. The picture below depicts an overhead view of the alignment of the body during the acceleration phase of throwing. Note the 15 degree angle of the foot away from the center of the mound [10]. Fleisig emphasizes the importance of these values by describing the change in force exhibited on the shoulder when they deviate from the norm.

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During the cocking phase, Fleisig reports a 3.

Biomechanics of overhand throwing with implications for injuries.

Please note that decreasing the distance away from center or decreasing the angle did not result in increased anterior force on the shoulder. So, because of the throwung anterior force on the shoulder, it can be assumed that over time the anterior ligamentous structures to the glenohumeral joint may be compromised. This finding is consistent with the anterior glenohumeral instability found in many throwing athletes and emphasizes the importance of proper mechanics throughout the entire kinematic chain oof.

The arm cocking phase can be defined as the beginning of lead foot contact and ends at maximum shoulder external rotation [3]. Due to the circumstances the scapula and shoulder muscles are highly activated to promote and sustain movements of the shoulder, especially external rotation.

The biceps brachii and supraspinatus are shown to be initiated or excited by these mechanoreceptors and assist with prevention of anterior instability.

Overtime the excessive utilization of the biceps brachii could lead injuties a superior labrum anterior to posterior SLAP tear. Simultaneously the pectoralis major, subscapularis, and serratus anterior are inhibited. These muscles decelerate shoulder external rotation in this phase. When these actions cannot be preformed there is increase likelihood of anterior instability of the glenohumeral joint [3].

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The arm acceleration phase begins at maximum shoulder external rotation and ends at ball release [3]. Improper stabilization of the scapula may be the cause of increased risk of shoulder impingement in this phase.

Throwing Biomechanics

The arm deceleration phase begins at ball release and ends at maximum shoulder internal rotation [3]. Typically the concern in this injures is safely decelerating the forward progression of the arm. Due to the high forces generated in this phase, the posterior muscles are highly susceptible to tensile overload, undersurface cuff tears, labrum and bicep pathologies, capsule injuries, and internal impingement [3].

Injuries to the shoulder are overgand common baseball pitching and more particularly in late cocking and deceleration phase [14].

Following is the list of potential shoulder injuries in different phases of pitching [1]. In this presentation, created by ZenoLink LLC, ways to maximize throwing velocity while minimizing the risk of cor injury through improved biomechanics and throwing efficiency are discussed.

Original Editor – Vinit Kothekar. The content on or accessible through Physiopedia is for informational purposes only. Physiopedia is not a substitute for professional advice or expert medical services from a qualified healthcare provider. Toggle navigation p Physiopedia. Contents Editors Categories Share Cite. Retrieved from ” https: The Biomechanics of Pitching: Maximum Velocity and Efficiency In this presentation, created by ZenoLink LLC, ways to maximize throwing velocity while minimizing the risk of mechanical injury through improved biomechanics and throwing efficiency are discussed.