Now click on the link that says: I have a registration Code that came with my book . | When asked to enter your code, type in your Unique Access Number. References: 1. Object –Oriented –Programming in C++ by E Balagurusamy. 2. Object –Oriented –Programming with ANSI & Turbo C++ by Ashok N. Kamthane. Language English. E BalaguruSamy – C++. Identifier EBalagurusamyObjectOrientedProgrammingWithC. Identifier-ark ark:// t0rr4g61p.

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Assume that the test results of a batch of students are stored in thrift different classen. Dividing a program into functions is one of the major principles of top-down, structured programming. That is, the statement max flpb ‘ – -1; is legal and assigns -1 to a if it is larger, otherwise -1 to b.

In both the cases, the functions are explicitly pansed two wrgummnts and they are invoked like any other overloaded funct ion, based on the types of its arguments. Object-oriented technology is certainly changing the way the software engineers think, analyze, design and implement systems. The ‘grandparent’ is sometimes referred to as indirect have class. Ft is aJscs possihU I it n ‘dined the output to other output device.

We would like to perform operations such as adding an item to the hat, deleting an item from the list and printing the total value of the order, Program 5. Example- float volume int x, Moat y t float l ; Note that each argument variable must be declared independently inside the parentheses.

Similarly, an assignment operation also causes the automatic type conversion, The type of data to the right of an assignment operator is automat ically ronvcrted to the type of the variable on the left.

The compiler may ignore the inline declaration if the function declaration ia too lung or too complicated and hence compile the function as a normal function.

Remember, the statement 12 – Il? They may represent a person. Figure shews two different notations used by the OOP analysts to represent a class. Use the concept of function overloading. Consider the procedure “draw” in Fig.



We shall LaLer discus HLreurns in detail. This is called integral widening conversion. This label’ tells the compiler which class the function be longs to. It is a member function of complex. If a function is used for bubble sort, then it should be able to alter the values of variables in the calling function, which is not possible if the call-by-value method is used.

Another serious drawback with the procedural approach is that it does not model real world problems very well. A cony constructor takes a reference to an object of the same class as itself as an argument.

It in- a good practice balguruswamy declare destructors in a program since it releases memory space for future use, Whenever new is used to allocate memory in the crrnMrucUsrH, we shimLd une delule to free that memory. This is referred to as dynamic initialization.

Therefore, the changes, made ineide the operator function will not reflect in the called object. The following comment is allowed: It automatically returns the correct pointer type, so that there is no need to use a type cast. There are a number of issues that need to be tackled to reap some of the benefits stated above. Thia is because functions are action-oriented and do not really correspond to the elements of the problem.

In such eases, the derived class function supersedes the base class definition, The base class function, blaaguruswamy be called only if the derived class does not redefine the function. Default values axe specified when the function ia declared.

E Balagurusamy Object Oriented Programming With C++

Note that class specification, like a structure, provides only a template and does not create any memory space for the objects. Emphasis is on doing things, c algorithms. It allows the data and functions to be hidden, if necessary, from external use. The count in incremented whenever the data is read into an object.


This mechanism is fine if the function does not need to alter the values of the original variables in the calling program.

Balaguruswamy OOP with C++

This information is known to the compiler at the compile time and, therefore, compiler is able to select the appropriate function for a particular call at the compile time itself. These functions provide the interface between the object’s data and the program.

Contains classes and functions used by the standard library to allocate memory Co the standard library containers.

However, there could be a situation where we would like two classes to share a particular function. HEHi hc] far how inhusrit. Enter appropriate number 1: As stated earlier, a copy constructor is used to declare and initialize an object from another object.

In such cases, the class is called a friend class.

Similarly, we can also have array fi of variables that are of the type class. I The only disadvantage of this style of declaration is that wi- aiunoi xtm all the variables used in n scope- at a glance. The number and type of operands decide the nature of operation to follow. They provide a built-in editor and a menu bar which includes options such as File, Edit.

For example, consider the following class definitions’ class A I int publ i c: If the requested copied are available, the total east of the requested copies is displayed; utherwitie the message “Required copies not in stock” is displayed. Normally, a small kLzi: Therefore, the code for the function body would be identical in both the cases.