3 Abacus Software Atari ST Internals The Registers Let’s take a look at .. Type Function 1 Restore, look for track 00 1 Seek, look for a track 1 Step, Another quite important group contains the functions for file handling and for . Found 9 file extension associations related to Atari ST and 7 file formats which referred to the Motorola ‘s bit external bus and bit internals. The ST. The Atari ST was a reasonably priced computer released in If you find it as an “.st” file you are in luck, that’s a floppy image, you can Okay, this post is getting long so for those impatient types I’m going to give you the code to type in: . All of those constants I got from the Atari ST Internals book [see.

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The ST was sold with either Atari’s color monitor or the less expensive monochrome monitor.

The system’s two color graphics modes are only available on the former while the highest resolution mode needs the monochrome monitor. In some markets, particularly Germanythe machine gained a strong foothold as a small business machine for CAD and desktop publishing work.

Thanks to its built-in MIDI ports, the ST enjoyed success for running music-sequencer software and as a controller of musical instruments among both amateurs and well-known musicians. Jay Minerone of the original designers for the custom chips found in the Atari and Atari 8-bit familytried to convince Atari management to create a new chipset for a video game console and computer. When his idea was rejected, Miner left Atari typf form a small think tank called Hi-Toro in and began designing the new “Lorraine” chipset.

The company, which was later renamed Amiga Corporationwas pretending to sell video game controllers to deceive competition while it developed a Lorraine-based internalx. Amiga ran out of capital to complete Lorraine’s development, and Atari, owned by Warner Communicationspaid Amiga to continue development work. In return Atari received exclusive use of the Lorraine design for one year as a video atati console.

After one year Atari would have the right to add a keyboard and market the complete computer, designated the XLD. As Atari was heavily fjle with Disney at the time, it was later code-named “Mickey”, and the Tile memory expansion board was codenamed “Minnie”.

After leaving Commodore International in JanuaryJack Tramiel formed Tramel Technology with his sons and other ex-Commodore employees and, in April, began planning sy new computer. The company initially considered the National Semiconductor NSxx microprocessor but was disappointed with its performance. The lead designer of the Atari ST was ex-Commodore employee Shiraz Shivjiwho had previously worked on the Commodore 64 ‘s development.

B_W File Extension – What is .b_w and how to open? – ReviverSoft

Tramiel learned that Warner wanted to sell Atari which, in mid, was losing about a million dollars per day.

He secured funding and bought Atari’s Consumer Division which included the console and home computer departments in July. As executives and engineers left Commodore to join Tramiel’s new Atari CorporationCommodore responded by filing lawsuits against four former engineers for theft of trade secrets. The Tramiels did not purchase the employee contracts when they bought the assets of Atari Inc.

At the time of the purchase of Atari Inc’s assets, there were roughly employees remaining from a high point of 10, After the interviews, approximately employees were hired to work at Atari Corp. At one point a custom sound processor called AMY was a planned component for the new ST computer design, but the chip needed more time to complete, so AMY was dropped in favor of an off-the-shelf Yamaha sound chip.

File: – YMorg

Having heard rumors that Tramiel was negotiating ttpe buy Atari, Amiga Corp. The discussions led to Commodore wanting to purchase Atarl Corporation outright, which Thpe believed would cancel any outstanding contracts, including Atari’s. Instead of Amiga Corp. Tramiel countersued Amiga Corp.

He sought damages and an injunction to bar Amiga and effectively Commodore from producing anything with its technology. At Commodore, the Amiga team was in limbo during the summer of because of the lawsuit.

No word on the status of the chipset, the Lorraine computer, or the team’s fate was known. In the fall ofCommodore informed the team that the Lorraine project was active again, the chipset was to be improved, the operating system OS developed, and the hardware design completed.


While Commodore announced the Amiga with the Lorraine chipset in Julythe delay gave Atari, with its many former Commodore engineers, time to deliver the first Atari ST units in June In Marchthe xt companies settled the dispute out of court in a closed decision.

With the hardware design nearing completion, the Atari team started looking at solutions for the operating system. Soon after the Atari buyout, Microsoft approached Tramiel with the suggestion that they port Windows to the platform, but the delivery date was out by two years, far too long for their needs.

Another option was to write a new operating system in-house, but this was rejected as Atari management was unsure whether the company had the required expertise to do so. Digital Research was fully committed to the Intel platform, so a team from Atari was sent to the Digital Research headquarters to work with the “Monterey Team” which comprised a mixture of Atari and Digital Research engineers. The name came from the original designer and developer, Jason Loveman.

The character set is based on codepage As early asAdam Osborne wrote that while Tramiel “deserves credit for what he has been able to accomplish”, “the microcomputer industry abounds with horror stories describing the way Commodore treats its dealers and its customers.

Under his reign, computer retailers have accused Commodore of treating them as harshly as if they were suppliers or competitors”.

One analyst stated after attending a meeting with the company, “We’ve seen marketing strategies changed before our eyes”. Although the more than 30 companies exhibiting ST software at Las Vegas COMDEX in November —while the Amiga had almost none—surprised the industry, [24] Tramiel’s poor reputation also influenced potential developers of software for his computer.

One stated that “Dealing with Commodore was like dealing with Attila the Hun.

The Atari ST Internals

I don’t know if Tramiel will be following his old habits I don’t see a lot of people rushing to get software on the machine. I’m still skeptical about its resources and its credibility. Other companies such as Spinnaker Software and Lifetree Software were more positive. Both promised to soon release ST software, with the former reporting that “Atari has a vastly improved attitude toward software developers. Fjle are eager to give us technical support and machines”, and the latter stating “we are giving Atari high priority”.

Dvorak wrote that the public saw both Commodore and Atari as selling “cheap disposable” game machines, [26] in part because of their computers’ sophisticated graphics. The ST did make its way into Europe on a limited basis. ST systems before the Mega ST range have no battery-backed clock. This allowed developers to send VDI instructions to other devices simply by pointing to it. Later versions of GDOS supported vector fonts.

It contained four unusual characters which can be placed together in a square, forming a facsimile of the face of J. The ST was less expensive than most machines, including the Macintosh Plusand tended to be faster than most. Indeed, the company’s English advertising strapline of the era was “power without the price. The keyboard has soft tactile feedback and rhomboid-shaped function keys across the top.

The ST is an all-in-one unit, similar to earlier home computers like the Commodore 64but with a larger keyboard with cursor keys and a numeric keypad. The ST uses an external power brick. The ST features a large number of ports mounted at the rear of the machine that remained largely unchanged over the ST’s history. Because of its bi-directional design, the Centronics printer port can be used for joystick input, and several games make use of available adaptors that plugged into the printer socket, providing two additional 9-pin joystick ports.

The ST supports a monochrome or color monitor. The attached monitor determines available resolutions, so software either supports both types of monitors or only works with one. Some commercial software, particularly games, shipped by default on single-sided disks, even supplying two kB floppies instead of a single double-sided one, for fear of alienating early adopters. This formatting issue was soon resolved by the emergence of third-party formatting and file copier software, MS-DOS disc imaging software capable of reading the unusual formats used by the ST and various other machines such as the Commodore Amiga and, a few years later, Atari’s own version 1.

The machine is generally similar to the earlier ST, but moved the power supply and a double-sided floppy drive into the rear of the housing of the computer, as opposed to being external. This added to the size of the machine, but reduced cable clutter in the back. The choice of model numbers was inherited from the model numbers of the XE series of the Atari 8-bit family of computers.


A limited number of STFs shipped with a single-sided floppy drive. The same basic design was also used for a cut-down version, the kB STFMwhich replaced the earlier ST models in the market. Germany became Atari’s strongest market, [9] with small business users using them for desktop publishing and CAD. To address this growing market segment, Atari came up with the ST1.

Debuted at Comdex init was received favorably. Renamed the Megathis new machine includes a high-quality detached keyboard, a stronger case to support the weight of a monitor, and an internal bus expansion connector. A 20 MB hard drive called the SH could be purchased as an option and stacked below or above the main case of the Mega. The upcoming SLM laser printer would not come with a processor or memory, reducing costs.

Initially equipped with 2 or 4 MB a 1 MB version, the Mega 1 would later followthe Mega machines would complement the Atari laser printer for a low-cost desktop publishing package, which received acclaim and was featured on the cover of Computer Shopper magazine.

A custom blitter co-processor was to be included to speed the performance of some graphics operations on the screen, but due to delays it was eventually released on the Mega 2 and Mega 4 machines.

Developers wanting to use it had to detect for it in their programs because it was not present on all machines. It features an increased color palette of 4, colors from the ST’s though the maximum displayable palette of these without programming tricks was still limited to 16 in the lowest x resolution, and even fewer in higher resolutionsGenlock support, and a blitter co-processor stylized as “BLiTTER” which can quickly move large blocks of data most particularly, graphics data around in RAM.

Two enhanced joystick ports were added two normal joysticks can be plugged into each port with an adapterwith the new connectors placed in more easily accessed locations on the side of the case. The enhanced joystick ports were re-used in Atari’s Jaguar console and are compatible.

The STE models initially had software and hardware conflicts resulting in some applications and video games written for the ST line being unstable or even completely unusable, primarily caused by programming direct hardware calls which bypassed the operating system.

Furthermore, even having a joystick plugged in would sometimes cause strange behavior with a few applications such as the WYSIWYG word-processor application 1st Word Plus. Very little use was made of the extra features of the STE: It also shipped with TOS 2. It was marketed as more affordable than a TT but more powerful than an ordinary ST.

Originally planned with a CPU, the TT included improved graphics and more powerful support chips. The case was a new design with an integrated hard-drive enclosure. The final ST computer is the multimedia-capable Atari Falcon Although the microprocessor is capable of using bit memory, the Falcon uses a bit bus which affects performance, but also served to reduce its cost.

Aftermarket upgrade kits were available that allowed the Falcon to be put in a desktop or rack-mount case, with the keyboard separate. Released inthe Falcon was discontinued by Atari the following year. InAtari ceased development on the ST computers to focus on the Jaguar. As with the Atari 8-bit computers, [37] [38] [39] [40] software publishers attributed their reluctance to produce Atari ST products in part to—as Compute! He stated that he had been warned by competitors that releasing a game like Falcon on the ST would fail because BBSs would widely disseminate it.

Within 30 days of releasing the non- copy protected ST version, the game was available on BBSs with maps and code wheels. He reported that the Amiga version sold in six weeks twice as much as the ST version in nine weeks, and that the Mac and PC versions had four times the sales. Computer Gaming World stated “This is certainly the clearest exposition